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High profile news accounts have brought attention to policing methods and processes that may have imbedded bias and racism. The resources on this page are meant to help scholars discover the most current findings and trends in this field, and to discover what actions the government anon non-profits are taking to ensure unjust/racist procedures are eliminated. The graph below provides a graphic representation of adult American beliefs about policing and race. This graph was retrieved from Statista (see citation below the graphic) You can find numerous graphical, statistical presentations using Statista (which must be searched independent from Eaglesearch).
Statista is one of the world’s largest statistics portals (1.5million statistics). Access infographs, forecasts, charts/graphs, and 2,500 exclusive Dossiers and industry reports (NAICS codes).
YouGov. (September 9, 2020). Share of adults who think Black people and White people receive equal police treatment in the United States in September 2020, by ethnicity [Graph]. In Statista. Retrieved January 13, 2021, from https://ezproxy.eastern.edu:2224/statistics/1123433/share-adults-black-white-people-receive-equal-treatment-us-ethnicity/
At Warner Library
Virtuous Policing by "It pulls no punches, shuns no controversial topic, and glosses over no issues or problems that beset America's law enforcement community in our day. For those who may be prone to suspect the motives of these self-confessed lovers of cops and warriors, the title of this book...should be sufficient to allay such concerns." --John C. Hall, Supervisory Special Agent, FBI (Retd.), from the Foreword Virtuous Policing: Bridging America's Gulf Between Police and Populace is a vigorous assessment and commentary on governmental uses of force, whether by civilian law enforcement officers in the United States or by military service members overseas. In the wake of recent controversies such as events in Ferguson, Missouri, and Baltimore, Maryland, this book presents strategies to ease rising tensions in citizen-law enforcement relations. The book particularly addresses the growing division between members of the police and citizenry due to a number of factors, including the effects of some press members who are more interested in cultivating sensational stories of "rogue" cops than in discovering and disseminating facts. Also, with the abundance of information--true and false--available on the Internet and the increasing utilization of social media, technology contributes to the rising friction between citizens and police. Rather than make unrealistic arguments for curtailing media and technology, it suggests solutions that are reasonable, practical, and, most importantly, peaceful. The authors examine law enforcement policies, procedures, and leadership methods in relation to four cardinal virtues: self-control, justice, competency, and moral courage. Case studies illustrate ethical, legal, psychological, and tactical issues that law enforcement and the military have to address in establishing and maintaining good and peaceable governance. With an eye toward minimizing or avoiding future violent confrontations between citizens and those who have sworn to protect them, Virtuous Policing makes recommendations on how law enforcement and military leaders can better train and lead their subordinates. It provides legitimate leadership guidance and peaceful solutions to the growing gap between America's citizenry and its police.
Publication Date: 2015-08-08
Policing in America by This book maps the development of modern policing--both theory and practice--from humans' first efforts at social control, through the British roots of modern policing, to the unique institution of American policing today. How Americans view police has varied dramatically through history. In 1856, New York police opposed wearing uniforms because they felt it represented a militaristic and nondemocratic type of organization. Today, our police model themselves on the military and use military tactics in the "war" on drugs. Policing in America: A Reference Handbook chronicles our changing ideas and methods of social control, beginning with the first recorded instances. It traces the trends that have shaped America's unique policing system and our fascination with police. It also examines the hot-button issues that concern police scholars today--such as the nature of the police subculture and police corruption--and details the trends and issues that will shape the future of policing. An essential reference for those interested in--and affected by--the American system of policing, which impacts us all. A glossary of standard policing terms, such as "blue curtain," "police subculture," "stakeout," and "forensics," allows the reader to better acquaint themselves with the law enforcement world A detailed list of associations and organizations in the field points readers to sources of further information
Publication Date: 2007-08-28
To Protect and Serve by The police in America belong to the people -- not the other way around. Yet millions of Americans experience their cops as racist, brutal, and trigger-happy: an overly aggressive, militarized enemy of the people. For their part, today's officers feel they are under siege -- misunderstood, unfairly criticized, and scapegoated for society's ills. Is there a fix? Former Seattle Police Chief Norm Stamper believes there is. Policing is in crisis. The last decade has witnessed a vast increase in police aggression, misconduct, and militarization, along with a corresponding reduction in transparency and accountability. It is not just noticeable in African American and other minority communities -- where there have been a series of high-profile tragedies -- but in towns and cities across the country. Racism -- from raw, individualized versions to insidious systemic examples -- appears to be on the rise in our police departments. Overall, our police officers have grown more and more alienated from the people they've been hired to serve. In To Protect and Serve, Stamper delivers a revolutionary new model for American law enforcement: the community-based police department. It calls for fundamental changes in the federal government's role in local policing as well as citizen participation in all aspects of police operations: policymaking, program development, crime fighting and service delivery, entry-level and ongoing education and training, oversight of police conduct, and -- especially relevant to today's challenges -- joint community-police crisis management. Nothing will ever change until the system itself is radically restructured, and here Stamper shows us how.
Publication Date: 2016-06-07
Justice in Policing Act of 2020
H.R. 7120 was introduced June 8, 2020.
Congress.gov Advanced Search
In the Advanced Search section of Congress.gov, you can create many kinds of searches.
were derived from the following advanced search:
1. limited to the current Congress
2. In policy area of Crime and Law Enforcement (Clicked on "Choose Policy Areas" under Subjects, then "Crime and Law Enforcement," then the "Apply" button. Finally, clicked "Search" to get the results.)
Executive order on safe policing for safe communities
Executive Order 13929, issued by President Trump on June 16, 2020
On June 17 and 18, 2020, the U.N. Human Rights held "an urgent debate on current racially inspired human rights violations, systemic racism, police brutality and violence against peaceful protests."
UN Human Rights Council resolution summary
“In a resolution adopted by consensus, the Council decided to request the High Commissioner for Human Rights, with the assistance of relevant Special Mandate Holders, to prepare a report on systemic racism, violations of international human rights law against Africans and people of African descent by law enforcement agencies, especially those incidents that resulted in the death of George Floyd and other Africans and of people of African descent, to contribute to accountability and redress for victims. The Council further requested the High Commissioner to examine government responses to antiracism peaceful process peaceful protests, including the alleged use of excessive force against protesters, bystanders and journalists.”
This organization researches and analyzes "policing practices across the country, provides technical assistance to organizers leading police accountability campaigns and develops model legislation and advocacy to end police violence nationwide."
Center for Policing Equity
"The Center for Policing Equity works to help police departments realize their own equity goals...and advance the scientific understanding of issues of equity within organizations and policing."
The Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD)
CERD is the U.N. “body of independent experts that monitors implementation of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination by its State parties.“
Equal Justice Initiative
The Equal Justice Initiative "is committed to ending mass incarceration and excessive punishment in the United States, to challenging racial and economic injustice, and to protecting basic human rights for the most vulnerable people in American society."
International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP)
The world's largest "professional association for police leaders," the IACP "is dedicated to advancing the policing profession through advocacy, research, outreach, and education in order to provide for safer communities worldwide."
Movement for Black Lives (M4BL)
M4BL works with individuals and other organizations to "create a shared vision and policy agenda to win rights, recognition, and resources for Black people."
National Black Justice Coalition (NBJC)
The NBJC strives to bridge "the gaps between the movements for racial justice and LGBTQ/SGL equality."
National Police Accountability Project (NPAP)
NPAP is a project of the National Lawyers Guild founded "to promote the accountability of law enforcement officers and their employers for violations of the Constitution and the laws of the United States."
Racial Justice Improvement Project
This ABA initiative “is designed to identify and reform policies and practices that produce racial disparities in local criminal justice systems across the country.”
Stanford Center for Racial Justice
"Through publishing and teaching on timely issues, student engagement, service, and training, the Center will facilitate social change by providing research and collaboration on policy reforms to dismantle racism."
Vera Institute of Justice
The institute "envision[s] a society that respects the dignity of every person and safeguards justice for everyone." The Research & Analysis
section provides access to reports on a wide range of topics, including policing and community, racial bias in prosecution, reducing the use of jail, and more.
Best Bet Databases
For most topics related to social justice, law, and policing, we recommend the following databases.
Criminal Justice (Gale OneFile) Criminal Justice Collection provides access to academic journals and magazines on topics in criminal justice and related fields. Key subjects covered in the database include law, law enforcement, security, and terrorism.
LegalTrac (Gale OneFile) Ideal for students, law school faculty, and legal researchers, LegalTrac provides indexing for more than 1,200 major law reviews, legal newspapers, specialty publications, Bar Association journals, and international legal journals, including more than 200 titles in full text. The American Association of Law Libraries not only endorses LegalTrac, its special advisory committee selects, reviews, and enhances the content of this resource. The database offers coverage of federal and state cases, laws and regulations, legal practice and taxation, as well as British Commonwealth, European Union, and international law.
HeinOnline Academic HeinOnline Academic includes more than 100 million pages of multidisciplinary content in more than 100 subject areas, including history, political science, criminal justice, religious studies, international relations, women’s studies, pre-law, and many more. With more historical content than any other database, HeinOnline provides access to 300+ years of information on political development and the complete history of the creation of government and legal systems around the world. Among the many databases included, HeinOnline’s journal collection features nearly 2,800 periodicals relating to a variety of subject areas, with all coverage dating from inception to the most currently published issues in most cases.
Nexis Uni Nexis Uni features more than 15,000 news, business and legal sources from LexisNexis - including U.S. Supreme Court decisions dating back to 1790 - with an intuitive interface that offers quick discovery across all content types, personalization features such as Alerts and saved searches and a collaborative workspace with shared folders and annotated documents.
Criminal Justice Abstracts - Full-text Covering all areas of criminal justice, Criminal Justice Abstracts includes more than 288,000 records with full-text, selected from the most important sources within the discipline; active full-text for non-open access of nearly 200 journals; other full-text coverage includes books, conference papers, reports, etc. Covering all areas of Criminal Justice: corrections and prisons, criminal investigation, criminal law and procedure and police and policing.
JSTOR Contains full-text articles from a variety of scholarly journal back-issues from over 2,500 titles.
Sociology Full-text of more than 310 journals in sociology and social work.
Statista Statista is one of the world’s largest statistics portals (1.5million statistics). Access infographs, forecasts, charts/graphs, and 2,500 exclusive Dossiers and industry reports (NAICS codes).
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