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Food Science & Technology
Canning: Topic Page
Process of hermetically sealing cooked food for future use. It is a preservation method, in which prepared food is put in glass jars or metal cans that are hermetically sealed to keep out air and then heated to a specific temperature for a specified time to destroy disease-causing microorganisms and prevent spoilage.
Cooking: Topic Page
Heat treatment of food to make it more palatable, digestible, and safe. It breaks down connective tissue in meat, making it tender, and softens the cellulose in plant tissue. Some nutrients may be lost in the process, but this does not affect the overall nutritional value of a balanced diet.
Fermentation: Topic Page
Process by which the living cell is able to obtain energy through the breakdown of glucose and other simple sugar molecules without requiring oxygen. Fermentation is achieved by somewhat different chemical sequences in different species of organisms.
Food Additives: Topic Page
In food, any natural or artificial chemical added to prolong the shelf life of processed foods (salt or nitrates), alter the colour, texture, or flavour of food, or improve its food value (vitamins or minerals).
Food Technology: Topic Page
The application of science to the commercial processing of foodstuffs. Food is processed to make it more palatable or digestible, for which the traditional methods include boiling, frying, flour-milling, bread-, yogurt-, and cheese-making, and brewing; to prevent the growth of bacteria, moulds, yeasts, and other micro-organisms; or to preserve it from spoilage caused by the action of enzymes within the food that change its chemical composition, resulting in changes in flavour, odour, colour, and texture.
Genetic Engineering: Topic Page
The potential public health benefits of genetic engineering are considerable, but so too are the potential harms.
Genetically modified foods: Topic Page
Genetically modified (GM) foods are increasingly controversial as they become more widespread. They have met a barrage of criticism and protest, and public confidence in them is low. New legislation on labelling has been introduced, partly in response to the controversy.
Bread: Topic Page
Food made from grains that have been ground into flour or meal, moistened and kneaded into a dough, and then baked.
Butter: Topic Page
Dairy product obtained by churning the fat from milk until it solidifies. In most areas the milk of cows is the basis, but elsewhere that of goats, sheep, and mares has been used.
Cheese: Topic Page
The milk of various animals has been used in the making of cheese: the milk of mares and goats by the ancient Greeks, camel's milk by the early Egyptians, and reindeer's milk by the Laplanders. Sheep's milk and goat's milk are still widely used, but cow's milk is most common. The milk may be raw or pasteurized, sweet or sour, whole, skimmed, or with cream added.
Chocolate: Topic Page
General term for the products of the seeds of the cacao or chocolate tree, used for making beverages or confectionery. The flavor of chocolate depends not only on the quality of the cocoa nibs (the remainder after the seeds are fermented, dried, and roasted) and the flavorings but also on a complex process of grinding, heating, and blending.
Pizza: Topic Page
A popular and cheap meal, which was once used for leftover dough from bread baking.
Sushi: Topic Page
Small rolls of cooked rice flavoured with rice vinegar, sugar and salt, topped with a variety of sliced or shaved raw seafood, pieces of sweet omelette or shredded vegetables, wrapped in nori and sliced, or alternatively moulded to form a decorative bite-sized package.
Vegetable Oils: Topic Page
Vegetable oils are purified fats of plant origin that are either liquid or solid at room temperature. Vegetable oils are used for cooking, frying, and baking; for salad dressings; and as dipping oils.
Botulism: Topic Page
Acute poisoning resulting from ingestion of food containing toxins produced by the bacillus Clostridium botulinum.
Dysentery: Topic Page
Inflammation of the intestine characterized by the frequent passage of feces, usually with blood and mucus.
E. Coli: Topic Page
Common bacterium that normally inhabits the intestinal tracts of humans and animals, but can cause infection in other parts of the body, especially the urinary tract.
Food Poisoning: Topic Page
Food poisoning, acute illness following the eating of foods contaminated by bacteria, bacterial toxins, natural poisons, or harmful chemical substances.
Hepatitis: Topic Page
Hepatitis, inflammation of the liver. There are many types of hepatitis. Causes include viruses, toxic chemicals, alcohol consumption, parasites and bacteria, and certain drugs.
Mercury Poisoning: Topic Page
Tissue damage resulting from exposure to more than trace amounts of the element mercury or its compounds.
Parasite: Topic Page
Parasite, plant or animal that at some stage of its existence obtains its nourishment from another living organism called the host.
Salmonella: Topic Page
Any of a very varied group of bacteria, genus Salmonella, that colonize the intestines of humans and some animals.
Salmonellosis: Topic Page
Salmonellosis, any of a group of infectious diseases caused by intestinal bacteria of the genus Salmonella, including typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever, blood poisoning, and food poisoning (gastroenteritis).
Tapeworm: Topic Page
Tapeworm, name for the parasitic flatworms forming the class Cestoda.