This section includes the how-to's of constructing references for citing ---- Motion pictures, streaming video, Television series and single episodes, music recordings, podcasts, Youtube Videos, works of art including , speeches and interviews.
Film, Video or DVD
Producer's last name, first initial (Producer), & director's last name, first initial (Director). (Year of the film's release). Film Title. [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Name of the movie studio.
Hitchcock, A. (Producer/director). (1941). Suspicion. [Motion picture]. United States: Turner.
Ruddy, A. (Producer). Coppola, F. (Director). (1972). The Godfather. [Motion picture]. United States: Paramount Pictures.
Video Retrieved online
Name of Primary contributor (Contributor). (Date Produced). Production title [Format of production]. Retrieved from http://Web address
Films for the Humanities (2008). Sustainable communities [video file]. Retreivable from
List the primary contributors in the author position and use parentheses to identify theri contributor of known.
List the format of the item in brackets immediately after the title.
If the item is not directly available online pr must ber purchased, use "Available from" rather than 'retrieved from."
Courtesy of Columbus State University APA Research Guide
Producer's last name, first initial (Producer). (Date of broadcast). Title of broadcast. [Television series]. City of origin: Studio or distributor.
Crane, D. & Kauffman, M (Producers). (1994). Friends [Television series]. New York: National Broadcasting Company.
Single Episode of a Television Series
Writer's last name, first initial (Writer), & Director's last name, first initial (Director). (Date of publication). Title of episode [Television series episode]. In Producer's first initial, last name. Series title. City of origin: Studio or distributor.
Carlock, R. (Writer), & Halvorson, (Director). The one with the cake [Television series episode]. In D. Crane & M.
Kauffman (Producers), Friends. New York: National Broadcasting Company.
Courtesy of Golden Gate University APA Research Guide
Podcast (audio or video)
Name of Primary Contributor (Contribution) (Date produced). Production title [Format of production]. Retrieved from http://Web address
Glass, I. (Producer). (2012, February 24), Held hostage [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.thisamericanlife.org
Hoades, S. (2010, October 31). Zombies in literature: Intro to zombie studies [Video podcast]. Retrieved from
*Note: For video podcast include the homepage url rather than the full url, because the video is easily available by search.
APA Electronic Resources #47; pg 27
You Tube (Video blog)
Author's last name, initials of First name/middle name or screen name if no author is available. (Year, month, day posted). Title of video. [Video file]. retrieved from http://Web address
Dorn, G. [geoffdorn]. (2006, November 17). How to tie a tie: Expert instruction on how to tie a tie [Video file].
Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/howtovideo
(The capitalization [or lack thereof] in the screen name is in keeping with how it appears online.)
On YouTube, the screen name is most prominent. If the user’s real name is not available, include only the screen name, without brackets:
Screen name. (Year, month, day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from http://xxxx
Bellofolletti. (2009, April 8). Ghost caught on surveillance camera [Video file]. Retrieved from
Courtesy of Columbus state University APA Research Guide
King, M. L., Jr. (1963,August 28). I have a dream [Audio file]. Retrieved from http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches
APA Style Guide to Electronic References, #53; p27.
Barnes, E. (1969), September 4). Interview with Eva Barnes-- Part 1 (S. Terkel, Interviewer) [real media file]. Retrieved from
When an interview can be retrieved (e.g. in audio, video or transcript form), it can be cited in a reference list.
Interviews that are not recoverable are cited as personal communications in text only. Cite in-text as (Barnes, 1969).
APA Guide to Electronic Resources, #54; p27
Songwriter's last name, first initial. (Date of copyright). Title of song [Recorded by artist if different from song writer]. On Title of album [Medium of recording]. Location: Label. (Recording date if different from copyright date).
Taupin, B. (1975). Someone saved my life tonight [Recorded by Elton John]. On Captain fantastic and the brown dirt
cowboy [CD]. London, England: Big Pig Music Limited.
Writer, A. A. (Writer). (Copyright year). Title of album. [Recorded by B. B. Artist if different from writer; medium of recording: CD, mp3, record, cassette, etc.] Retrieved from http"//xxxx (Date of recording if different from album copyright)
*Take note that if a song was recorded at a different time that the album was released, the original date of recording is provided in parentheses after the retrieval statement.
Lennon, J., & McCartney, P. (2000). I want to hold your hand [Recorded by The Beatles; mp3 file]. On The Beatles 1.
Retrieved from http://www/amazon.com (Oiginal work recorded 1963)
Courtesy of Golden gate University APA Research Guide & APA Style Guide to Electronic Resources, #47; p26
Transcriptions of an audio or video file include podcasts, interviews, speeches, etc.
Science Magazine (Producer). (2010, December 17). Science magazine podcast transcript, December 17, 2010.
National Public Radio (Producer). (2011, February 11). Science diction: The origin of 'antibiotic' [Podcast transcript].
Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/2011/02/11/133686020Science-Diction-The-Origin-Of-Antibiotic
If the title does not indicate the item is a transcript, a description (in brackets), is helpful.
Provide the exact date (month, day, year) because podcasts may be recorded frequently.
In the first example Science is italicized (or reversed italicized, within the title, because it is the title of the magazine.
APA style Guide to Electronic Resources, #55; p27-28