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Citing in APA Format: Digital Files

This guide will assist you in citing electronic and print resources. Each tab will indicate the type of resource and how to cite.

E-MAIL

E-Mails
 
E-mails are considered 'personal communication.' Since personal communications are not retreiveable , they are not included in the reference list. Personal communication includes personal interviews, letters, phone calls, email or messages from nonarchived discussion groups.
 

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase) or (Quotation): 

(Sender First Initial. Second Initial. Surname, personal communication, Month Day,Year)

Example:
 
 In-Text Citation Paraphrase or Quotation: 
 (K. Johnson, personal communication, March 25, 2010)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(K. Johnson, personal communication, March 25, 2010)

Courtesy of Columbus State University APA Research Guide

ELECTRONIC MAILING LIST OR LISTSERV

Electronic Mailing list or Listserv

Last name, initials of First name/Middle name. (Year, month, day of post). Subject line of the message [Electronic mailing list]. Retrieved from http://Web address

Example:

Filipan, R. (2012, February 1). Attend library careers night----Enter raffle to win an e-reader [Electronic mailing list

             message]. Retrieved from https://lists.uakron.edu/sympa/arc/alao/2012-02/msg00002.html

Courtesy of Golden Gate University APA Research Guide

BLOG POST

(From APA 7.11 ex. 76)

Blog (Web log) Post

Last Name, initials of First Name/Middle Name or Screen name if no author is available. (Year, Month, Day posted). Subject line of posting [Weblog post]. Retrieved from http://Web address

Example:

Wilson, S. (2012, July 25). YA Wednesday: Walter Dean Myers mademy day [Web log post]. Retrieved from

          http://www.omnivoracious.com/2012/07/ya-wednesday-walter-dean-myers-made-my-day.html


Blog Comment

Example:

wayfarer. (2012, July 25). Re: YA Wednesday: Walter Dean Myers made my day [Web log comment]. Retrieved from

           http://www.omnivoracious.com/2012/07/ya-wednesday-walter-dean-myers-made-my-day.html

Note:

Use the screen name if the author's name is not available. 

Titles for items in online communities (e.g. blogs, newsgroups, forums) are not italized.

Place identifiers like post or message numbers, if available, in brackets.

If available, provide URL where the message is archived.

Courtesy of Columbus State University APA Research Guide

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