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Citing in APA Format: Encyclopedias, Dictionaries, Reference

This guide will assist you in citing electronic and print resources. Each tab will indicate the type of resource and how to cite.


Entry in an Encyclopedia, retrieved online, no entry author

Boss brass. (2009). In H. Kallmann & G. Potvin (Eds.), Encyclopedia of music in Canada. Retrieved from


Entry in an Encyclopedia, retrieved from online, entry has author name

Gersten, T. (2014). Hemophilia B. In National Library of Medicine, A.D.A.M. medical

           encyclopedia. Retrieved from

Entry in an Encyclopedia, retrieved from STAT!Ref online, no entry author

Vernix caseosa. (2009). In D. Venes (Ed.), Taber's cyclopedic medical dictionary (21st ed.) [STAT!Ref version].

            Retrieved from

Entry in an Encyclopedia, electronic version of print book, entry author, multi-volume, direct link unavailable, retrieved from Gale Virtual Reference Library

Hanegraaff, W. (2005). New Age movement. In L. Jones (Ed.), Encyclopedia of religio (2nd ed., Vol. 10, pp.

            6495-6500). Retrieved from

Definition Entry in a general Dictionary, retrieved online, no entry author, no date, no editor. Note: When no entry author is provided, move name of word into author position.

Diabetes. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster's online dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved from

            /dictionary /diabetes

Entry in a Dictionary, retrieved online, no entry author, no editor

Terrorism. (2009). In DOD dictionary of military and associated terms. Retrieved from



Citing the DSM

This reference work has a common abbreviation (DSM–IV–TR). To introduce this abbreviation in text, use the following citation format at first mention:

           Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM–IV–TR; American Psychiatric

                         Association, 2000).

Entry in Mental Measurements Yearbook (MMY)

Title of the review and authorship appears in italics at the beginning of the review narrative (example provided below). Also note that many entries published in MMY contain more than one review. Title of the test is capitalized.

Allen, N. L. (1992). Review of the Comprehensive Assessment of School Environments. In J. J. Kramer & J. C.

            Conoley (Eds.), The eleventh mental measurements yearbook. Lincoln, NE: Buros Institute,

             University of Nebraska Press.


Reference Reviews and Peer Commentaries

You would use this format for reviews of books, motion pictures, and other information or entertainment products. Many are published in a several venues including periodicals, websites, and blogs. Some publications will print author responses to comments.

If a review is untitled, use the material in brackets as the title; retain the brackets to indicate that the material is a description of form and content, not a title.

Identify the type of medium being reviewed in brackets (book, motion picture, television program, etc.)

If the reviewed item is a book, include the author names after the title of the book, separated by a comma.

If the reviewed item is a film, DVD or other media, include the year od release after the title of the work, separated by a comma.

General Format:

Reviewer, A. A. (2000). Title of review [Review of a book Title of book, by A. A. Author]. Title of complete work, xx, xxx-xxx.


Review of a book

Schatz, B. R. (2000), November 17). Learning  by text ir context? [Review of the book The social life of information, by J. S.

               Brown & p. Duguid]. Science, 290, 1304. Doi: 10.1126/science.290.5495.1304

Review of a video

Axelman, A., & Shapiro, J. L. (2007). Does the solution warrant the problem? [Review of the DVD Brief therapy with

               adolescents, produced by the American Psychological Association, 2007]. PsycCRITIQUES, 52(51).

               doi: 10.1037/a0009036

Commentary on an article

Wolf, K. S. (2005). The future for Deaf individuals is not that bleak [Peer commentary on the paper "Decrease of Deaf

               potential ina mainstreamed environment" by K. S. Wolf]. retrieved from



Courtesy of APA Publication Manual, 6th ed.

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